Mechanical Turk

In 1769, Hungarian nobleman Wolfgang von Kempelen astonished Europe by building a mechanical chess-playing automaton that defeated nearly every opponent it faced. A life-sized wooden mannequin, adorned with a fur-trimmed robe and a turban, was seated on a wooden cabinet and toured Europe confounding such brilliant challengers as Benjamin Franklin and Napoleon Bonaparte. To persuade skeptical audiences, Kempelen would slide open the cabinet’s doors to reveal the intricate set of gears, cogs and springs that powered his invention. He convinced them that he had built a machine that made decisions using artificial intelligence. What they did not know was the secret behind the mechanical Turk: a chess master cleverly concealed inside.


Benjamin Franklin was right: “Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.” Most adults require seven to nine hours of quality sleep per night in order to wake up feeling their best. Yet so many people swear they only need 5-6 hours of sleep per night. Are they fooling themselves?

Yes. Many people will say that they only need five to six hours of sleep per night, but they are usually not doing this on a regular sustained basis. Studies have repeatedly showed we need a minimum of seven hours of sleep per night in order to function optimally.